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Minerals: Types, Deficiency & Best Sources 2020.

 Minerals: Types, Deficiency & Best Sources 2020.

Minerals :

What is a mineral easy definition? 

Minerals are defined as the essential elements in foods that our bodies need to develop and function normally . 

  • Minerals need in a small amount, about  25 to maintain normal body function and good health .
  • 16 nutrients are essential nutrients and supplied through diet.
  • Nutrients and minerals needed in the body in a small amounts to help its function properly and stay strong .
  • Minerals found in foods like nuts, cereals, meat, fish, vegetables, fruit and milk etc.

Role of minerals in our body 

  • Mineral helps contraction  and relaxation of muscles.
  • Minerals help to regulate body tissue growth.
  • Minerals help to maintain nerve conduction .
  • Minerals help to maintain the pH balance in the body.
  • Minerals act as a co-factors for enzyme reaction.
  • All cell required enzymes to functions.  

Types of minerals in Food: 

Two groups of minerals

1. Major minerals (macro-minerals)

2. Minor minerals (micro-minerals)

Minerals List:

1. Macro-minerals:

Macro-minerals are also known as major minerals or bulk minerals.
Macro-minerals needed in a amounts of  100mg or more than 100 mg each day. imbalance of  macro minerals can be potentially fatal. These is rare case or deficiencies in human.

  • Calcium 

Calcium is the mineral that humans require in the greatest amount. Calcium is also necessary for clotting of blood, for the function of certain enzymes, and for control of fluid through cell membrane. 
Source
Milk, cheese, yogurt, legumes, okra, sesame, chia, sardines, beans etc.

Deficiency

chiefly in bone and teeth diseases.

Daily value 

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 1300mg.

  • Phosphorus 

Phosphorus is an essential part of every living cell. It is involved in the enzyme control energy yielding reaction of metabolism. Phosphorus also helps control the acid-alkaline reaction of the blood. Highest requirement of calcium for the young, pregnant women and nursing mothers. 

Sources

Beans, dairy products, meat, poultry, sea food, whole grains,& nuts.

Deficiency

Anxiety, fatigue, numbness, irregular breathing. 

Daily value 

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 1250mg.

  • Magnesium

Magnesium is essential to the function of several enzyme system, is important in maintaining electrical potential in nerves and membrane, is involved with liberation of energy for muscles contraction, and is required for normal metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.

Sources

Beans and dairy products, fruit and vegetable, nuts and pumpkin seeds, avocados, potatoes and whole grains.

Deficiency

Loss of appetite, muscle spasms, tremor & nystagmus.

Daily value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 420mg.

  • Sodium 

Sodium are the chief extra cellular ions for the body they are involved primarily with maintaing osmotic equilibrium and body fluid volume. Sodium involves in acid base balance, blood pressure regulation, nervous function. A humans daily intake from food of about 10gm of salt more than meets there needs, and indeed may be excessive since high sodium can contribute to elevating blood pressure. Vegetables are relatively low in salts and so vegetarians generally need salt supplementation to their diets.

Sources 

Cheese, chicken, egg, meat, table salt, pickled foods and breads. 

Deficiency

`Cramping, depressed appetite and apathy.

Daily value 

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 2300mg.

  • Chloride 

Chloride ion is also necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid of gastric juice. Great losses occurs in sodium and chloride during loss of body fluids, such as perspiration during exercise and these must be replaced to prevent weakness, nausea and muscle cramps.

Sources

Table salt, eggs, meat, milk, tomatoes, sea weeds, celery, lettuce, olives, and rye.

Deficiency

Muscles cramps, apathy, depressed appetite, growth failure.

Daily value 

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 2300 mg.

  • Potassium 

Potassium is the principal intercellular cation and with sodium help regulate osmotic pressure and pH equilibria. It is also involved with cellular enzyme function. Potassium is essential for life but rarely is limiting even in the most meager diets. 

Sources

Potatoes, milk, yogurt, sea food, tomatoes, carrot, spinach, apricots.

Deficiency

Weakness, mental confusion, paralysis, and possible death.

Daily value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 4700mg.

  • Sulphur

Sulphur is the most abundant mineral in the human body after calcium and phosphorus. Component of amino acid present in keratin which keeps hair finger nails and skin stronger and healthier. Sulphur helps the cells using oxygen efficiently. 

Sources 

Milk, legumes, cabbage, onion, turnips, meat, poultry, sea food and duck.

Deficiency

Skin disorders, nerve disorder muscles pain.

Daily value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 14mg/kg BW (methionine).


2. Micro-minerals:

Micro-minerals is also known as minor-minerals or trace minerals. They are dietary minerals needed by human body in very small quantities generally less than 100mg per day. The micro-minerals are abundant in our environment they are found in all of the foods we eat in general the abundance of trace element in food is related to there abundance in environment the micro element may be present in food as a result of uptake from soil, feeds or contamination during the subsequent to processing of food.

  • Iron 

Hemoglobin formation in red blood cells in the muscles, oxygen carrier, energy utilization, needed to convert beta carotene to vitamin A.  Iron  helps energy production, wound healing, immune function, red blood cells formation energy production growth and development.

Sources

Pumpkin seeds, nuts, vegetables, dried fruits, beets, whole grains, meat, sea food, poultry, soya beans and peas.

Deficiency

Anemia, depressed immunity, weakness, headache, behavioral  abnormalities.

Daily value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 18mg. 

  • Iodine

Iodine is the part of thyroid hormone and is essential for the prevention of  goiter in humans.  There is never a shortage of iodine where salt water fish are eaten the central united state and parts of  South America, away from the ocean are short of indigenous iodine. Today the common use of  iodized salt prevents deficiency and in the United State there is concern that iodine levels not become excessive.

Sources 

Fish, shell fish, milk, iodized salt, cereals, seaweed, turkey, potatoes and beans 

Deficiency

Goiter and cretinism.

Daily value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 150mcg.

  • Zinc 

Zinc is essential constituent of enzymes involved in carbohydrate and protein metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. Transport of vitamin A sense of test , wound healing, muscles contraction and immune health.

Sources

Beans, peas, beef, dairy products, nuts, whole grains, poultry and shell fish, milk, broccoli, yogurt, and pumpkin seeds.

Deficiency

Metabolic disturbance, poor wound healing, impaired test, decreased apatite, growth failure.

Daily value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 11mg.

  • Copper 

Copper helps in absorption of iron, part of many enzymes, necessary for formation of collagen, regulate oxygen level, bone formation, nervous system function and energy production and iron metabolism.

Sources

Lentils, whole grains, meat organ, nuts, shell fish, crustaceans, cocoa, coffee, banana, oranges and green leafy vegetables. 

Deficiency

Anemia, bone changes.

Daily value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 0.9mg.

  • Chromium

Chromium helps in energy release, sugar and fat metabolism, protein transport, insulin function and protein metabolism.

Sources

Whole grains, turkey, garlic, basil, meat, grape and orange, apple, banana, broccoli, potatoes, vegetable oil, black pepper and green pepper. 

Deficiency 

Impaired glucose tolerance, elevated circulating insulin, disturbed fat metabolism.

Daily value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 35mcg.

  • Selenium

Selenium is an antioxidant, helps immune function , reproduction and thyroid function.

Sources

Egg, meat, nuts, poultry, sea food, whole grain & tomatoes.

 Deficiency

Anemia, possible increased risk of heart disease and cancer.

Daily value 

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 55mcg.

  • Manganese

Manganese helps carbohydrates, protein and cholesterol metabolism, and cartilage bone formation and wound healing

Sources

Beans, nuts, pineapples, spinach, sweet potato, whole grain, tea, legumes, coffee, apples.

Deficiency

Rare 

Daily value 

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 2.3mg.

  • Molybdenum

Molybdenum helps in enzyme production, helps the body use iron and burn fats.

Sources

Beans, peas, nuts, whole grains, legumes, organ meat green and leafy vegetables.

Deficiency 

Beans, peas, cereals, leafy vegetables, nuts & whole grains.

Daily Value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 45 mcg.

  • Fluoride

Fluoride helps in bone & teeth formation, decrease dental caries.

Sources

Tea, seafoods, spinach, grapes, potatoes, watermelon, peaches,.

Deficiency

Increase dental caries, osteoporosis, 

Daily Value

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 23mg.

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