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13 Vitamins : Types, Deficiency & Best sources 2020.

 13 Vitamins : Types, Deficiency & Best sources 2020.

  • Vitamins :

Vitamins are organic amino acids & fatty acids, that must be supplied to an animal in small amount to maintain health.

  • Vitamins are required in the diet of human & animal for normal body growth.
  • Vitamins can be obtained from the different types of foods.


Types of Vitamins:

Vitamins List/There are 13 vitamins your body needs :

  • Vitamin A 
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin B2
  • Vitamin B3
  • Vitamin B5
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B 7
  • Vitamin B9
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin D

Vitamins are Classified into 2 Group:

   1.Water Soluble (Hydrophilic)

    2.Fat Soluble (Hydrophobic)

1. Water-Soluble Vitamins:

      There are 9 water soluble Vitamins, water soluble vitamins dissolves easily in water & in general are readily excreted from the body.

  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin B2
  • Vitamin B3
  • Vitamin B5
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B7
  • Vitamin B9
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C

2. Fat-Soluble Vitamins :

    There are 4  fat soluble vitamins, fat soluble vitamins dissolves easily in fat & oils. Fat Soluble are absorbed along with fats in the diet & can be stored in the body's fatty tissue. 

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin D

      

     Chemical Name of Vitamins :

  • Vitamin A          -         Retinol         
  • Vitamin B1        -         Thiamine
  • Vitamin B2        -         Riboflavin
  • Vitamin B3        -         Niacin
  • Vitamin B5        -         Pantothenic acid        
  • Vitamin B6        -         Pyridoxine
  • Vitamin B7        -         Biotin
  • Vitamin B9        -         Folate
  • Vitamin B12      -         Cobalamin
  • Vitamin C         -         Ascorbic acid
  • Vitamin D         -         Calciferol
  • Vitamin E         -          Tocopherol
  • Vitamin K        -           Phylloquinone

1.Vitamin A (Retinol) :

Vitamin A as such naturally occurs only in animal material meat, milk, eggs . Plant contain no vitamins A but contain its precursor, Beta carotene. Humans & other animals needs either vitamin A or Beta carotene, which they easily convert to vitamin A. Beta carotene is found in orange & yellow vegetables, as well as green leafy vegetables.

Source :

Liver, Fish oils, dairy products containing butter fat & egg, carrots, squash, sweet potato, spinach, kale.

Deficiency:

Vitamin A deficiency leads to blindness, failure of normal bone & teeth development, skin diseases & growth retardation in children.
Usage per day :

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 0.7-0.9 mg. 

2.Vitamin B1 (Thiamin):


Thiamin was the first of the B vitamins to be recognized. Fortification of rice or white bread with thiamin corrects this disease. A most important role of thiamin is in the utilization of carbohydrates to supply energy.

Source :

wheat germ, whole grains, meat, fish, liver, pork,& egg yolk.

Deficiency :

The disease beriberi caused by a deficiency of thiamin.

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 10.1.5 mg.

3.Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) :

Riboflavin is the yellow -green pigments of skim milk and whey. It function in the oxidative processes of living cells & is essential for cellular growth & tissue maintenance.

Source :

Liver, milk & egg are good sources, meat and leafy vegetables are moderate sources.

Deficiency :

Skin disorders, hyperemia, edema of the mouth & throat, angular stomatitis, swollen & cracked lips, hair loss.

 Recommended daily allowance for adults is 1.2-1.7 mg.


4.Vitamin B3 (Niacin) :

Niacin also referred to as nicotinamide in the United Kingdom is not be confused with nicotine from tobacco.

Source :

Yeast, meat, fish, poultry, peanuts, legumes & whole grains.

Deficiency :

Pellagra, skin & mucous membrane disorder as well as depression & confusion.

Recommended daily allowance for adult is 13-20 mg.

5.Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid):

Pantothenic acid is widespread in foods, obvious symptoms of its deficiency are rare in humans but a deficiency may appear in experimental animal on limited diets or in several malnourished individuals.

Source :

Mushrooms, nuts, beans, meats, dairy products, lentils, peas are source of vitamin B5.

Deficiency :

Fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritability, vomiting, stomach pains, burning feet and upper respiratory infections.

Recommended daily allowance for adults is approximately 5 mg.

6.Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):

Vitamin B6 is the name given to the closely related substances pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. Although essential in the human diet for specific enzyme systems and normal metabolism.

Source :

Skinless turkey breast, pork lion, skinless chicken breast, salmon, banana, roasted pistachios, avocado, lentils. 

Deficiency :

Skin rashes, cracked and sore lips, sore glossy tongue, mood changes, weak immune function, tiredness & low energy.

Recommended daily allowance for adult is 2 mg(2.2 mg during pregnancy).

7.Vitamin B7( Biotin) :

Two additional substances that are water soluble & generally listed with the vitamins of the B complex are biotin and choline is a compound. Biotin is active the metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids. Choline is a component of cell membrane and brain tissue, and it functions in the transmission of nerve impulses. Biotin and choline  are seldom in short supply when the diet is adequate in the other B vitamin. Further, these and other growth factors, such as inositol and para-aminobenzoic acid, are produced by the normal microflora of the intestine.

Source :

Walnut, peanut, cereals, milk and egg yolks, salmon, pork, sardines, mushroom, cauliflower, avocado and raspberry are the sources.

Deficiency :

Biotin deficiency symptoms include hair loss, skin rashes, cracking in the corners of the mouth, eye dryness, loss of appetite.

Recommended daily allowance for adult is 0.03 mg.

8.Vitamin B9 (Folate) :

 Folacin and folate are the names given to related compounds exhibiting the vitamin activity of folic acid. Like vitamins B12 folacin prevents certain kinds of anemias, is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids, and is synthesized by microorganisms.

Source :

Liver, leafy vegetables, legumes, and cereal grains and nuts are especial sources of folacin.

Deficiency :

Tiredness, weakness, heart palpitations, breath shortness, headache, irritability, difficulty in concentrating.

Recommended daily allowance for adult male is 0.2 mg for female 0.18 mg & 0.4 during pregnancy.

9.Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) :

Vitamin B 12 called the anti-pernicious anemia factor, vitamin B12 is important in nucleic acid formation and in fat and carbohydrates metabolism. Vitamin B12 is important in nucleic acid formation and in fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Vitamin B12 is also called cyanocobalamin, is the largest vitamin molecule and contain cobalt in its structure, giving rise to an essential requirement for the mineral cobalt in nutrition. Vitamin B12 is synthesized by bacteria and molds and is commercial by products of antibiotic production.


Sources :

Liver, meats, seafoods good natural sources.

Deficiency :

Atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, celiac disease, Immune system disorder.

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 0.002 mg.

10.Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid ) :

Vitamin C is the anti-curvy vitamin. Its necessary for the normal formation of the protein collagen, which is an important constituent of skin and connective tissue. Vitamin C & vitamin E favors the absorption of iron. Vitamin C also known as ascorbic acid, is easily destroyed by oxidation, especially at high temperature, and is the vitamin most easily lost during food processing, storage & cooking.  Vitamin C containing foods must be protected against exposure to oxygen to prevent losses.

Sources :

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage, green peppers, potatoes are excellent sources of vitamins.

Deficiency :

Rough, bumpy skin, corkscrew-shaped body hair, spoon shaped fingernails with red spots, dry damage skin, easy bruising, slow healing wounds, panful swollen joints, weak bones, bleeding gums & tooth, poor immunity, anemia, unexplained weight loss.

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 60mg.

11.Vitamin D (Calciferol) :

Vitamin D is formed in the skin of humans & animals by activation of sterols by ultraviolet light from the sun or by ultraviolet activation of sterols artificially such sterols as cholesterol and ergosterol are involved. Vitamin D increases absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestinal tract and is necessary for their efficient utilization. Excessive intake of vitamin D provides no benefits and is potentially harmful

Sources :

Salmon, fish liver oil, trout, tuna, mackerel, dairy products and eggs are best sources of vitamin D.

Deficiency :

Dark skin, obese, fatigue & tiredness, depression, impaired wound healing, bone loss, hair loss, muscles pain.

Recommended daily allowance for children is 0.01 mg.

12.Vitamin E (Tocopherol) :

Vitamin E is also known as alpha-tocopherol, vitamin E is an intisterility factor in rats is essential for normal muscles tone in dog & other animals but its significance for humans is still uncertain. Vitamin E is a strong antioxidants and probably functions as such in human metabolism. Diet excessive in polyunsaturated fats can leads to the formation of per-oxidized fatty acids that may reach harmful levels. Vitamin E in large doses has been promoted as a remedy for numerous diseases and as an agent to prolonged youth and increase sexual potency.

Sources :

Wheat germ oil, sunflower seeds, almonds, hazelnut oil, peanuts, avocado, brazil nut, mango, kiwi fruit, salmon, sea foods.

Deficiency :

Short bowel syndrome, crohn's disease, chronic pancreatitis, cholestasis.

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 15mg .

13.Vitamin K (Phylloquinone):

Vitamin K is essential for normal blood clotting. Its can also be synthesized by bacteria in the human intestinal tract. Thus antibiotic therapy that destroys intestinal organisms can produce deficiencies of vitamin K & certain other vitamins synthesized by bacteria.

Sources:

Green vegetables, spinach, cabbage.

Deficiency :

Poor bone development, osteoporosis, increase cardiovascular diseases, significant bleeding.

Recommended daily allowance for adults is 1 microgram a day of vitamin K for each kilogram of their body weight.


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