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What is Food Frauds(Vulnerability Assessment & Critical Control Point),Types of Food Fraud, How Does Food Frauds Affect Consumers 2020.

What is Food Frauds(VACCP), Types of Food Fraud, How Does Food Frauds Affect Consumers 2020.


A collective term used to encompass the deliberate and intentional substitution, addition, tempering or misrepresentation of food, food ingredients or food packaging or false or misleading statements made about a product, for economic gain .

Food fraud for economic reasons is also increasing -requirement for a food fraud mitigation plan like melamine added to dairy products in china.


1.Establish an  Vulnerability Assessment Team.

2.Use SSAFE's Food Fraud Vulnerability           Assessment Tools.

  • Use Decision Tree to identify exposure to risk (ingredients, supplier, customers, product lines, brand, region, company-wide).
  • Summaries information resulting from Decisions Tree analysis.
  • Complete questionnaire to identify risk.
  • Review main spider webs and certainty (opportunities/motivation and control).
  • Review detailed spider web(opportunities/motivation vs controls).
  • Review risk assessment at output sheet.
  • Create report.

3.Develop Action Plan if Controls are Breached, Including Immediate Correction and Corrective Action.

4.Document the VACCP Plan.

5.Trin Staff Accordingly.

6.Regularly Verify VACCP Plan.

Vulnerability Assessment and Critical Control Point focuses on identifying and controlling hazards; VACCP focuses on identifying and controlling vulnerabilities .

VACCP is a method that can lead to food frauds. Vulnerability in food businesses and food supply chains are mislabeling,stolen,adulteration,smuggling,dilution,counterfeiting.

VACCP identifies these vulnerabilities and control them to protect food frauds in the supply chain. To achieve this, one need to think like criminal. The concerned person from the quality department can coordinate with others departments to identify frauds and their risks.

Below Mentioned Plans Can Be Used 

  • Identify any possible adulteration, dilution, mislabeling etc. that can happen.
  • Determine point at which frauds can be provoked.
  • Use of control measure to reduce vulnerabilities.
  • Documentation and employee training.

Types of Food Frauds:-




4. Unapproved



7.Grey market


Mixing a liquid ingredient of high value with a liquid of lower value. Example mixing of olive oil with other cheap oil, dilution of fruit juices and replacement with other similar ingredients. Water downed products using nonportable/unsafe water.


Replacing an ingredient ,or part of the product, of high value with another ingredients, or part of the product, of lower value. Example sunflower oil partially substituted with mineral oil. Hydrolyzed leather protein in milk.  


Hiding the low quality of food ingredients or products. Example Poultry injected with hormones to conceal diseases. Harmful food coloring applied to fresh fruit to cover defects. 


Adding unknown and undeclared materials to food products to enhance the quality attributes. Example melamine added to enhance protein value. Use of unauthorized additives(Sudan dyes in spices).


Copying the brand name, packaging concept, recipe, processing method etc. of food products for economic gain. Example Copies of popular foods not produced with acceptable safety assurances. Papaya seeds in black pepper, corn stigma in saffron to increase the volume of products.


Placing false claims on packaging for economic gain. Examples expiry, provence(unsafe origin) toxic Japanese star anise labeled as Chinese star anise. The horse meat scandal shocked the UK IN 2013 was the example of threat of food frauds. Food was advertised as containing beef but found undeclared horse meat.

7.Grey market:-

Sale of excess unreported products. Example sales of excess, unreported products. Loss of royalties or brand payments. 

How Does Food Frauds Affect Consumers:-


May contaminate food, for example ,if someone with a severe dairy allergy unknowingly consumes traces, there could be life threatening consequences.


False claim are made that a food product is organic ,when it can't actually be classified as such.

Religious needs:-

May be compromised if product sold as halal and kosher are in fact fraudulent.

Dietary requirement

May be  compromised ,such as if a vegetarian or vegan consumes something contaminated.


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