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What is Food Preservation, Principle, Need of Food Preservation, Objectives, (Traditional Methods of Food Preservation)2020.

 What is Food Preservation, Principle, Need of Food Preservation, Objectives, (Traditional Methods of Food Preservation)2020.

Food Preservation Meaning

"Preservation is defined as a it is a process of preventing food from spoilage by creating condition under which microorganisms cannot multiply and grow .meaning of the word "preserve" is to keep safe ,retain quality and preserve decomposition" .


"A process by which certain foods like fruits and vegetables are prevented from getting spoil for a long period of time the color ,taste and nutritive value of the food is also preserved".

Principles of food preservation.

  • Removal of micro-organisms  or inactivating the micro-organisms.
  • Inactivating the enzymes.
  • Prevention of damage because of external factors(insects, dust) etc.
  • Prevention or delay of microbial decomposition and self decomposition.

Need & Importance of food preservation

  • Make transportation and storage of food easier.
  • One of the important reason for food preservation is to take care of the excess produce.
  • Another reason is to add variety and value added products to our diet.
  • Reaches are as where the food item is not grown.
  • To eliminate the waste of foods.
  • Increase the food product shelf life.
  • The supplement of food can be increase.
  • Overcome inappropriate planning in agriculture.
  • To preserve quality and nutritive value of foods.

Objectives of food preservation

  • Understand the the term food-spoilage and food storage.
  • Helps in preventing food spoilage and wastage.
  • Know the household methods of preserving food.
  • Discuss general principle of food preservation.
  • Categorize the food items of daily use according to shelf life.
  • General principles of food preservation.

Methods of food preservation

  • Traditional techniques.

  • Curing
  • Cooling
  • Freezing
  • Boiling
  • Heating
  • Sugaring
  • Pickling
  • Lye
  • Canning
  • Jelling
  • Potting and Jugging
  • Burial
  • Confit
  • Fermentation
  • Drying
  • Smoking
  • Blanching

Traditional Techniques

1)Curing :-

Curing is a food preservation and flavoring process of meat fish and vegetables by adding salt.


Cooling is a slowing down the growth and reproduction of microorganisms and also slowing down the action of enzymes that may cause food rot.


Freezing is a process of preserving food by lowering the temperature that can inhibit the growth of  microorganisms.


Boiling the liquid food can kills microbes existing in a food.


Heating of the food items at temperature which are sufficient to kill microorganisms.


Heating of fruit with sugar, sugar tends to draw water from the microbes(Plasmolysis).This process leaves the microbial cell dehydrated, thus kill them.


It is a method of preserving food.
chemical pickling:-
By chemical pickling cucumber, peppers, vegetables are preserved. Pickling agent which are used as as brine solution, vinegar, alcohol and oil.
fermentation pickling:-
In fermentation process bacteria produce organic acids as a preservative agents. lactic acid produced bt lactobacillus ex. sauerkraut, kimchi etc.


Sodium hydroxide(lye)makes food too alkaline for bacterial growth. Lye will saponify fats in the food, which will changes its flavor and texture .Lutefisk uses lye in its preparation as do some olive recipes. Modern recipe for century eggs also call for lye.


Canning is a method of food preservation in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight containers like mason jar, steel and tin cans etc. Canning provides shelf life of one to five years although under specific circumstances it can be much longer.


Jellying is a form of food preservation where substances are cooked that form a natural gel, jam and jelly are made from fruit, fruit juice sugar and pectin.

 11)Potting and Jugging:-

 Potting and jugging is a method of meat preservation. Which is no longer recommended because of the risk of botulism. It is a process of stewing of meat in a covered earthenware jug or casserole with brine.


Burial food preservation is when you bury your food below the frost line in the ground. Very little light and oxygen can reach the food beneath the ground. The cooler temperature and soil's pH level preserve the food as well. 


Confit is a preservation of fruits and vegetables by slowly cooking food in a liquid that is inhospitable to bacterial growth.

14) Fermentation:-

Fermentation is a process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria under anaerobic condition. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired. ex cheese, wine, beer etc.

15) Drying:-

Drying basically dehydrates or remove the  moisture from the food and this simple action inhibits the growth of bacteria, mold and yeast. Moreover it slow down the enzyme action without deactivating them. These factors ensure that food does not spoil easily and hence makes drying an effective food preservation technique.


Smoking is the process of preserving, flavoring , browning and cooking by exposing food to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most often wood. Ex meat, fish tea etc.


Blanching is utilized to preserve color, flavor and nutritional value. Scalding vegetables and fruit in boiling water for a short time and plunged into iced water to hald the cooking process.


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