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What is Adulteration(Types of Adulterants, Why Food Adulteration is Done, Method of Food Adulteration & Detection of Adulterants with Rapid Test)2020.

What is Adulteration(Types of Adulterants, Why Food Adulteration is Done, Method of Food Adulteration & Detection of Adulterants with Rapid Test)2020.

Food adulteration means anything adding or subtracting with food marketing it injurious to health. This adulteration may be done intentionally or unintentionally. Intentional adulteration is a crime act and punishable offense or the process of lowering the nutritive value of food either by removing a vital components or by adding substances of interior quality.
                                                  OR
Food Adulteration can be defined as the practice of adulteration food or contamination of food material by adding few substances which are collectively called the adulterants.


Types of Adulterants

There are 3 types of adulteration

1.Intentional Adulterants

2.Metallic Contamination

3.Incidental Adulterants



1.Intentional Adulterants:- 

Intentional adulterants are sand, marble chips, stone, mud, chalk powder, water, mineral oil and coal tar dyes. This adulteration cause harmful effect on the body.

2.Metallic Contamination:-

Metallic contamination includes arsenic from pesticides, lead from water and mercury from effluents of chemical industries, tin from cans.

3.Incidental Adulterants:-

Incidental adulterants are pesticide residues, tin from can dropping of rodents, larvae in foods. Metallic contamination with arsenic lead, mercury can also occur incidentally .Pests such as rodents and insects intrude into the food at high degree and produce filth in the form of excreta. bodily secretions and spoilage through microorganisms. The most common incidental adulterants are pesticides, D.D.T and marathon residues present on the plant product. The maximum permissible residue allowed for D.D.T marathon is 3 ppm.



Why food Adulteration is Done 


  • To increase the quantity of food production and sales.
  • To make maximum profit from food items by fewer investments.
  • Increase food demand for a rapidly growing population.
  • Lack of knowledge of proper food consumption.

Method of food Adulteration

  • Cheaper and inferior substances are added wholly or partially with the good ones to increase the weight or nature of the product.
  • Mixing of clay, pebbles, stones, sand and marble chips to the grains and pulses.
  • Adding certain natural and chemical dyes to attract consumers.
  • Mixing of decomposed fruits and vegetables with the good one.
  • Adulteration is an illegal practice of adding raw and other cheaper ingredients to the excellent quality products to increase the weight and earn more profit .

Detection of Adulterant With Rapid Test.

1.Detection of Water In Milk

  • Put a drop of milk on a polished slanting surface.
  • Pure milk either stays or flows slowly leaving a white trail behind.
  • Milk adulterated with water will flow immediately without leaving a mark.

2.Detection of Papaya Seeds in Black Pepper.

  • Add some amount of black pepper to a glass of water.
  • Pure black pepper settle at the bottom.
  • In the adulterated black pepper, papaya seeds float on the surface.

3.Detection of Sugar Solution in Honey

  • Take a transparent glass of water.
  • Add drop of honey to the glass.
  • Pure honey will not disperse in water.
  • If the drop of honey disperses in water ,it indicates the presence of added sugar.

4.Detection of Synthetic Colors in Red Chili Powder.

  • Sprinkle chili powder on the surface of water taken in a glass of tumbler.
  • The artificial colorants will immediately start descending in color streaks.

5.Detection of Mashed Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes and Other Starches in Ghee/Butter.

  • Take half teaspoon of ghee/butter in a transparent glass bowl.
  • Add 2-3 drop of tincture of iodine.
  • Formation of blue color indicates the presence of mashed potatoes, sweet potatoes and other starches.

6.Detection of Chalk in Common Salt :

  •  Stir a spoonful of sample of salt in a glass of water.
  •  The presence of chalk will make solution white and other insoluble impurities will settle down.


7.Detection of Exhausted Clove in Clove :

  • Take water in a glass & put cloves into it.
    Genuine cloves will settle down at the bottom while exhausted cloves will float on surface.

8.Detection of Artificial Color in Green Peas :

  • Take little amount of green peas in a transparent glass.
  • Add water to it & mix well.
  • Let it stand for half an hour.
  • Clear separation of color in water indicates adulteration.


9.Detection of Clay in Coffee Powder :

  • Add 1/2 teaspoon of coffee powder in a transparent glass of water.
  • Stir for a minute & keep it aside for 5 minutes.
  • Observe the glass at the bottom.
  • Pure coffee powder will not leave any clay particles at the bottom.
  • If coffee powder is adulterated. clay particles will settle at the bottom.



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